Creator of a Billion Light Years Away                                                                

Rocketdyne's LR-101 was a small, secondary (or "vernier") engine. Two LR-101s were mounted on the Atlas and Thor missiles (and, later, the Delta launch vehicle, by virtue of its first stage being a modified Thor missile). It was produced in several versions and operated under different conditions, but the LR-101 generally produced about 1,000 pounds of thrust. Later, in its Atlas Space Launch Vehicle configuration, its thrust was downrated as adequate role

Pegasus engine

and attitude control could be accomplished at a lower thrust rate and the corresponding lower propellant flowrate meant that more propellant was available to the sustainer engine, in turn producing improved overall launch


vehicle performance. On the Atlas, the two outer booster engines were gimballed; two gimballed engines allowed for yaw, pitch, and roll control. After about two minutes of flight, the boosters were jettisoned, leaving the single center sustainer engine. While this engine was also gimballed, roll control is not possible with only one engine. The primary purpose of the LR-101 vernier engines was to provide roll control after the booster engines had been jettisoned. They also contributed to thrust and, after the sustainer was shut down, powered the Atlas to its final velocity and position.
AMPS Stage 2

AMPS stage

CR-863 -Converted-

CR 863 converted

The LR-101 was a single-start, fixed-thrust engine with an expansion ration of 6:1. In at least some configurations, ignition occurred by means of pyrophoric (hypergolic) fluid which ignites spontaneously in the presence of oxygen. (A former Rocketdyne employee contacted me after I initially put up this page saying that in the July 1956 to July 1957 timeframe, they were ignited "by a sparkler stuck in the throat". The LR-101 was a long-lived engine, so it appears that different versions were ignited via different methods.) Its thrust chamber weighed only about 15 pounds; in its -NA-15 configuration, the mount and bearing assembly added another 27 pounds.

Here is a cut-away diagram of the LR-101 thrust chamber assembly: LR101-NA-1

turbo jet

Nozzle 01


Rockwell 1980 1K LH2 Expander


Rockwell 1980 3K LH2 Expander




SM RCS thruster600




Turbofan operation

Turbofan Operation

1000 lb. Thrust


Vectored engine

{| class="specs"

|THRUST. . . . . . . . . . . . .  |(NA-13) 669 ± 5% @ sea level, pump fed
(NA-15) 1000 ± 3% @ sea level, pump fed |- |PROPELLANTS . . . . . . . . . .  |Liquid oxygen (MIL-P-25508C) and RP-1* (MIL-R-25576B) |- |O/F WEIGHT RATIO. . . . . . . .  |1.8 ± 0.1 |- |RATED DURATION. . . . . . . . .  |322.5 sec** (ATLAS), 184 sec (THOR) |- |PROPELLANT FEED . . . . . . . .  |Sustainer engine turbopump until cutoff; thereafter they are tank fed |- |THRUST VECTOR CONTROL . . . . .  |Gimbaled thrust chambers ± 75° yaw, -35° and -25° in pitch (ATLAS), ± 47° pitch, +6 and 34° yaw (THOR) |- |CURRENT USE . . . . . . . . . .  |Verniers for ATLAS and THOR missiles |- |STATUS. . . . . . . . . . . . .  |In production. Preliminary design was completed in June 1958 for the LR101-NA-3 |- |SPONSORING AGENCY . . . . . . .  |U. S. Air Force through ATLAS and THOR contracts |}

  • RJ-1 (MIL-F-25558B) has been utilized in the LR101-NA-11 
    • 325 sec for LR101-NA-7 
PERFORMANCE (Sea Level) NA-13 NA-15 Md 1 NA-15 Md 2
Thrust, lb 1000 830 669 526 913 777
Thrust Coefficient 1.33 1.30 1.247 1.171 1.307 1.281
Specific Impulse, lbf-sec/lbm nominal 207 197 190.5 183.9 205.3 197.6
minimum 200 194
Characteristic Exhaust Velocity, ft/sec 4997 4897 4915 5052 5053 4962
Chamber Pressure, psia 358 302 257 216 337 292
Fuel and Oxidizer Supply Pressure, psia 630 510 509 LOX 390 LOX 646 LOX 543 LOX
448 Fuel 335 Fuel 678 Fuel 543 Fuel
Flow Rates, lb/sec Total 4.81 4.17 3.51 2.86 4.45 3.93
Oxidizer 3.09 2.68 2.22 1.84 2.81 2.53
Fuel 1.72 1.49 1.29 1.02 1.64 1.40

  • At altitudes above 100,000 ft, the thrust is approximately 1154 lb and specific impulse is 238 lbf-sec/lbm for the NA-13   

    Vernier Jet


    VSTOL diagram

    Abstract : Presented is a summary of test results from a program to develop the YLR101-NA-15 vernier engine. The program was completed in three phases: (1) Downrating the tank-fed thrust of the YLR101-NA-13 vernier from 830 pounds to 525 pounds, (2) modifying and repackaging the 525pound-thrust vernier into the YLR101-NA-15 configuration, and (3) developing a modified vernier injector to minimize a thrust chamber erosion problem which


    Pegasus Engine diagram

    Figs 7 Engine gas flow

    Engine Gas Flow

    occurred at the 525-pound-thrust level.


2015-11-20 23.36.12

Light Speed

2015-11-20 23.38.25

Light Speed Drive

n the fictional Star Trek universe, the impulse drive is the method of propulsion that starships and other spacecraft use when they are travelling below the speed of light.[1] Typically powered by deuterium fusion reactors, impulse engines let ships travel interplanetary distances readily. For example, Starfleet Academy cadets use impulse

vernier engines

Vernier Engine 1

vernier engine diagram


VSTOL diagram

Sabre notes 1l

Saber Notes

Sabre-airflow 1024

Saber Airflow


Saber engines

WEB-EngineCUTAWAY.img assist custom-300x192

web engine

engines when flying from Earth to Saturn and back.[citation needed] There are three practical challenges surrounding impulse drive design: acceleration, time dilation and energy conservation. In the show, inertial dampers compensate for acceleration. These hypothetical devices would have to be set so that the propellant retained its inertia after leaving the craft otherwise the drive would be ineffective.[2] Time dilation would become noticeable at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. Regarding energy conservation, the television series and books offer two

Star Trek Warp Engine


Warp Engine Star Trek


Star Trek Warp Engine


Warp Engine


Wave Motion Engine, the ship's main power generator unit is a refined, improved and slightly larger variant used on the Yamato as well featuring and extra smaller one. Auxiliary energy is provided by the four Fusion Reactors each one mounted in the 4 secondary engine gondolas. The ship have 4 engines systems:
Main Wave Motion engine providing the primary source for sub light and warp speeds
4x Secondary engines in gondolas to provide extra boost or low speed travel
4 Auxiliary engines in the lower forward hull section just below and behind the wings.

  • Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual indicates that the impulse engines are nuclear fusion engines where the plasma from the fusion reactor powers a massive magnetic coil to propel the ship. It is a form of magnetohydrodynamic or magnetoplasmadynamic thruster. This is used in conjunction with the ship's warp drive's alteration of the ship's relativistic mass, to achieve mid-to-high sub-light speeds. Thrusters, on the other hand, are closer to the designs of a high-efficiency reactant propellant (i.e. a sophisticated rocket engine) and are usually used for high-precision maneuvers. Ion propulsion drives are explicitly detailed to be used in Star Trek by Dominion and Iconian Starships and facilities.
  • Since a ship traveling at impulse velocities (slower than, but approaching, the speed of light) is still traveling in the normal space-time continuum, concerns



    RCS Jet

    of time dilation apply, and it is written in the ST:TNG Technical Manual that high relativistic speeds are avoided unless absolutely necessary; impulse power is therefore customarily limited to a maximum of 14 lightspeed. (Warp travel, on the other hand, is stated in the Manual to cause no kinds of time dilation effects.)A vernier thruster is a rocket engine used on a spacecraft for fine adjustments to the attitude or velocity of a spacecraft. Depending on the design of a craft's maneuvering and stability systems, it may simply be a smaller thruster complementing the main propulsion system,[1] or it may complement larger attitude control thrusters,[2] or may be a part of the reaction control system. The name is derived from vernier calipers (named after Pierre Vernier) which have a primary scale for gross measurements, and a secondary scale for fine measurements.

Vernier thrusters are used when a heavy spacecraft requires a wide range of different thrust levels for attitude or velocity control, as for maneuvering during docking with other spacecraft.

On space vehicles with two sizes of attitude control thrusters, the main ACS (Attitude Control System) thrusters are used for larger movements, while the verniers are reserved for smaller adjustments.

Due to their weight and the extra plumbing required for their operation, vernier rockets are seldom used in new designs.[1] Instead, as modern rocket engines gained better control, larger thrusters could also be fired for very short pulses, resulting in the same change of momentum as a longer thrust from a smaller thruster.

Vernier thrusters are used in rockets such as the R-7 for vehicle maneuvering because the main engine is fixed in place. For earlier versions of the Atlas rocket family (prior to the Atlas III), in addition to maneuvering, the verniers were used for roll control, although the booster engines could also perform this function. After sustainer engine cutoff, the verniers would execute solo mode and fire for several seconds to make fine adjustments to the vehicle attitude. The Thor/Delta family also used verniers for roll control, but were mounted on the base of the thrust section flanking the main engine.

Propulsion means to push forward or drive an object forward .[1] The term is derived from two Latin words: pro, meaning before or forward; and pellere, meaning to drive.[2] A propulsion system consists of a source of mechanical power, and a propulsor (means of converting this power into propulsive force).

A technological system uses an engine or motor as the power source (commonly called a powerplant), and wheels and axles, propellers, or a propulsive nozzle to generate the force. Components such as clutches or gearboxes may be needed to connect the motor to axles, wheels, or propellers.

Biological propulsion systems use an animal's muscles as the power source, and limbs such as wings, fins or legs as the propulsors.

A technological/biological system may use human, or trained animal, muscular work to power a mechanical device.


Vehicular propulsionEdit

Air propulsionEdit

Main article: Powered aircraft[1] A turboprop-engined Tupolev Tu-95An aircraft propulsion system generally consists of an aircraft engine and some means to generate thrust, such as a propeller or a propulsive nozzle.

An aircraft propulsion system must achieve two things. First, the thrust from the propulsion system must balance the drag of the airplane when the airplane is cruising. And second, the thrust from the propulsion system must exceed the drag of the airplane for the airplane to accelerate. The greater the difference between the thrust and the drag, called the excess thrust, the faster the airplane will accelerate[2].

Some aircraft, like airliners and cargo planes, spend most of their life in a cruise condition. For these airplanes, excess thrust is not as important as high engine efficiency and low fuel usage. Since thrust depends on both the amount of gas moved and the velocity, we can generate high thrust by accelerating a large mass of gas by a small amount, or by accelerating a small mass of gas by a large amount. Because of the aerodynamic efficiency of propellers and fans, it is more fuel efficient to accelerate a large mass by a small amount, which is why high-bypass turbofans and turboprops are commonly used on cargo planes and airliners[2].

Some aircraft, like fighter planes or experimental high speed aircraft, require very high excess thrust to accelerate quickly and to overcome the high drag associated with high speeds. For these airplanes, engine efficiency is not as important as very high thrust. Modern combat aircraft usually have an afterburner added to a low bypass turbofan. Future hypersonic aircraft may use some type of ramjet or rocket propulsion[2].


[2] Wheels are commonly used in ground propulsionMain article: Ground propulsionGround propulsion is any mechanism for propelling solid bodies along the ground, usually for the purposes of transportation. The propulsion system often consists of a combination of an engine or motor, a gearbox and wheel and axles in standard applications.


[3] Transrapid 09 at the Emsland test facility in GermanyMain article: MaglevMaglev (derived from magnetic levitation) is a system of transportation that uses magnetic levitation to suspend, guide and propel vehicles with magnets rather than using mechanical methods, such as wheels, axles and bearings. With maglev a vehicle is levitated a short distance away from a guide way using magnets to create both lift and thrust. Maglev vehicles are claimed to move more smoothly and quietly and to require less maintenance than wheeled mass transit systems. It is claimed that non-reliance on friction also means that acceleration and deceleration can far surpass that of existing forms of transport. The power needed for levitation is not a particularly large percentage of the overall energy consumption; most of the power used is needed to overcome air resistance (drag), as with any other high-speed form of transport.


[4] A view of a ship's engine roomMain article: Marine propulsionMarine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water. While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting a motor or engine turning a propeller, or less frequently, in jet drives, an impeller. Marine engineering is the discipline concerned with the design of marine propulsion systems.

Steam engines were the first mechanical engines used in marine propulsion, but have mostly been replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines, outboard motors, and gas turbine engines on faster ships.Nuclear reactors producing steam are used to propel warships and icebreakers, and there have been attempts to utilize them to power commercial vessels.Electric motors have been used on submarines and electric boats and have been proposed for energy-efficient propulsion.[3] Recent development in liquified natural gas (LNG) fueled engines are gaining recognition for their low emissions and cost advantages.


[5] A remote camera captures a close-up view of a Space Shuttle main engine during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, MississippiMain article: Spacecraft propulsionSpacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. There are many different methods. Each method has drawbacks and advantages, and spacecraft propulsion is an active area of research. However, most spacecraft today are propelled by forcing a gas from the back/rear of the vehicle at very high speed through a supersonic de Laval nozzle. This sort of engine is called a rocket engine.

All current spacecraft use chemical rockets (bipropellant or solid-fuel) for launch, though some (such as the Pegasus rocket and SpaceShipOne) have used air-breathing engines on their first stage. Most satellites have simple reliable chemical thrusters (often monopropellant rockets) or resistojet rockets for orbital station-keeping and some use momentum wheels for attitude control. Soviet bloc satellites have used electric propulsion for decades, and newer Western geo-orbiting spacecraft are starting to use them for north-south stationkeeping and orbit raising. Interplanetary vehicles mostly use chemical rockets as well, although a few have used ion thrusters and Hall effect thrusters (two different types of electric propulsion) to great success.  


Main article: Cable car (railway)A cable car is any of a variety of transportation systems relying on cables to pull vehicles along or lower them at a steady rate. The terminology also refers to the vehicles on these systems. The cable car vehicles are motor-less and engine-less and they are pulled by a cable that is rotated by a motor off-board.


Concept all in 1 vernier

Conduit interior

Warphub Conduit Interior Quantum space


Quantum Slipstream

Star Trek VOY Quantum Slipstream Drive-0

Star Trek VOY Quantum Slipstream Drive-0

Slipstream Sequence

Slipstream Sequence